Grow Higher - Vertical Growing Systems




An autoflower is a cannabis strain that flowers automatically after a period of time has passed. Autoflower strains do not require a change in the light cycle to prompt flowering and do not require external prompts to produce resinous buds.

Cannabis Seed

A cannabis seed is a small, round, dark brown to black seed from the female cannabis plant. The seeds are used to grow new cannabis plants. Cannabis seeds contain high THC and CBD levels, making them ideal for medical and recreational use.

Cannabis Strain

A cannabis strain refers to a specific type of cannabis plant. In the cannabis industry, the terms indica, sativa and hybrid refer to cannabis strains, each having their own characteristics.

Colloidal Silver

Colloidal silver is a combination of distilled water and flakes of near-pure silver that is sprayed onto a part of a plant that you want to become a hermaphrodite. Growers use colloidal silver to produce feminized seeds that essentially offer an all-female cannabis crop.


A cultivar is a plant that has been bred and selected for desirable traits. In cannabis cultivation, cultivars are often selected for their THC or CBD content and flavor and aroma profile. Some popular cultivars include Blue Dream, OG Kush, and White Widow.

Feminized Seeds

Feminized cannabis seeds are bred without any male chromosomes. The feminized seeds will only grow female plants, which makes it easy and quick to grow, and are nearly guaranteed to produce buds.


Genotype is the genetic makeup of an organism. In cannabis, genotype refers to the genetic composition of a particular strain of the plant.

Gibberellic Acid

Gibberellic acids, also referred to as gibberellins, are growth hormones derived naturally from fungi and plants. These growth hormones can be used as plant-growth regulators and may promote seed germination and trichome development in cannabis plants. 

Hybrid Strains

Cannabis hybrid is a plant that has the characteristics of sativa and indica cannabis plants. Most cannabis today offers combined characteristics of the two cannabis plants, and depending on their lineage, is considered either indica- or sativa-dominant because of the greater proportion of the particular strain.


Cannabis Indica is one of two primary strains grown for consumption. This plant originated in the Hindu Kush mountain range, which encompasses the countries of India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Nepal.

Pheno Hunting

Pheno hunting is the process of inspecting all the phenotypes (seeds) from a female cannabis plant after fertilization. The goal is to hunt for desirable phenotypes, such as those with a shorter growth cycle or higher concentrations of cannabinoids.


Phenotype is the observable characteristics of a plant, like size, shape, color, etc., that are determined by the interaction of its genotype with the environment.


Sativa is one of the two primary varieties of cannabis. This strain is recognized by its long, skinny leaves and tall, thin stalks.

Grow Operation Management

Grow Journal

A cannabis grow journal is a journal used to track and monitor everything from propagation and vegetation to flowering, drying, and curing your cannabis plants. The journal helps cultivators keep tabs on all steps of the cultivation process, including the factors that can affect yield and what the yield turns out to be. 

Growing Techniques & Cultivation


Aeroponics is a cannabis cultivation method that uses an active, moving airstream to deliver nutrients directly to the roots. Because aeroponics systems do not use soil or other growing mediums, they can be very efficient in water and nutrient usage.


A style of aquaculture where the plants get their nutrients from waste of the fish in tanks.  The cycle of cooperation between plants and fish being symbiotic by mimicking a natural ecosystem.


Bubbleponics is a derivative of deep-water culture hydroponic growing. Instead of simply submerging the plant roots in a nutrient-rich solution, bubbleponics feeds nutrients through air tubes threaded through the roots. Because air constantly flows into the system, it creates a lot of bubbles, hence the name. 

Cannabis Mainlining

Mainlining cannabis is a growing technique that is done to encourage the plant to grow more than one large, elongated cola by splitting the stem at a certain point in the growing process.


Deep Water Culture A hydroponic growing technique where plants are suspended above a nutrient solution. In this style large amounts of oxygen are generated by incorporation of air stones to the solution. The word Deep indicates that the roots are placed deep into the water for best explosive growth.

Ebb & Flow

A hydroponic system also known as flood and drain. This technique requires a flood table and a reservoir for holding water and nutrients. In this technique water is pumped into the flood table until it covers the base of the plant. Water is than drained out of the flood table back into the reservoir.

Flowering Time

The amount of time a cannabis time needs after transitioning a plant from a vegetative state to a flowering state. Flowering time varies by strain but is typically known to be between 8 and 9 weeks long.


Hydroponics is the process of growing plants in nutrient-rich water instead of soil. Regarding cannabis cultivation, hydroponics work well for indoor grow operations. Growing cannabis in the soil can be complicated and cost-prohibitive, so hydroponics offers a more efficient and streamlined solution.

Indoor Growing

Indoor growing is the process of growing indoors so that environments can be manipulated to the perfect growing conditions year round. The upside is that you have complete control of the environment. Some downsides are the costs associated with electricity and a large building.


Nutrient film technique (NFT) is a hydroponic technique where in a very shallow stream of water containing all the dissolved nutrients required for plant growth is re-circulated past the bare roots of plants in a watertight gully, also known as channels.

Outdoor Growing

Natural growing using the sun and soil. Downsides of this type of growing is you are limited to one season. Upsides are that the cost is substantially lower to produce a product because it is using the sun for its energy.

Soilless Growing

Also considered hydroponic growing uses an inert growing media and all nutrients are provided to the plants with nutrient salts mixed into a water.

Super Cropping

Super cropping is the process of using high-stress techniques (HST) to improve the yields of individual plants. When done correctly, super cropping can help growers get more buds from their plants.

Vegetative State

The time in a plant’s life cycle that is dedicated to maturing and growing.  The plant stays in this state until the photoperiod is changed and can vegetate as long as the light cycle stays over.

Harvesting and Processing


Bucking describes the act of removing the flower from the stems of the plant after it is harvested. This usually happens before trimming the flower.

Cannabis Defoliation

Why is Cannabis Defoliation Done? Defoliation is done to improve the growth efficiency of the plant by removing leaves that would otherwise require nutrients to continue to grow or may block sunlight from reaching the growing flower. The practice of defoliation is a bit controversial; some growers swear by it, while others claim the practice […]

How Many Grams in an Ounce

To be exact, there are 28.3495 grams in an ounce. Most cannabis sellers will measure about 28 grams, which is roughly equivalent to a full sandwich-size Ziploc bag of marijuana.


Kief, sometimes spelled “keif”, is a popular cannabis concentrate, and the oldest. It comes from the trichomes, or resin glands, of the cannabis plant. These glands are full of cannabinoids and terpenes, which give cannabis its unique flavor and effects. Kief is the after product of trimming a cannabis bud, and generally has a strong THC level compared to flower because of its purity.

Moisture Content

The amount of water left over in a cannabis flower after drying. Moisture content is important in cannabis because if it does not fall below a certain threshold it could cause the flower to mold.


Topping cannabis is a common cultivation technique that removes the main central cola (or apical meristem) from a cannabis plant. This is typically done to encourage the growth of multiple, smaller colas (or bud sites) instead of a single large one.


Trimming cannabis is an important step in preparing harvested plants to showcase the overall quality of the bud and trim away excess material. Cannabis trimming may be done by hand, which is preferred, but may also be done with a machine.  Why Cannabis Trimming Is Important  When you trim cannabis, excess or unnecessary plant material […]


Cloning Rack

A rack with shelves spaced 1 to 2 feet apart with multiple shelves. This is made to hold smaller plants that were just cloned.

Cure Room

A cure room is an area dedicated to curing dried cannabis buds, which makes the flower much smoother to smoke. Because curing requires attention to detail and a controlled environment, it helps to have a room dedicated to this process.

Dry Room

A room designated to dry harvested cannabis plants. Typically this room is cold and has plants hanging with a lower humidity to aid in the drying process before the plants can be trimmed.

Flood Table

A flood table is a large, shallow tray that holds excess water and nutrients during the watering process. The flood table allows growers to disperse water and nutrients to their plants without worrying about over-watering or under-watering any plant.

Grow Bench

Grow benches are typically used in greenhouses or indoor grows where only 1 grow level is required. This system holds a tray for growing off of the ground between 12 and 36 inches high. Some are static while others are mobile.

Grow Room

A grow room is a dedicated space for growing cannabis plants. This room is where seeds are planted and cultivated until the plant is ready for harvest. 


A substance natural or synthetic that is used to kill insects that are harmful to plants.

TDS Meter

A TDS meter measures the amount of “total dissolved solids” in a liquid. While you could measure any kind of solution, most people use TDS meters for water.

Vertical Grow Rack

Vertical Grow Rack Definition A vertical grow rack is an industrial-strength shelf that allows growers to cultivate multiple layers of plants. These racks are often made of steel and can have three or four rows for growing. They can also come as mobile vertical grow racks, allowing growers to move the rack as needed in […]



18 hours of light and 6 hours of dark. This lighting scheme is used during a vegetative state to keep the plant from going into flower mode. Some growers use this method because of their belief that indoor grows should mimic nature.


Light left on for 24 hours. This lighting scheme is used during a vegetative state to keep the plant from going into flower mode. Some growers use this method because they feel like they can grow a plant quicker with 24 hours of light.

Dark Period

A period of pitch black used when growing cannabis to mimic night time.


High Intensity Discharge is a gas discharge light commonly used in cannabis Among the common types of HID lights are mercury vapor, low and high pressure sodium and metal halide lamps.


High Pressure Sodium a type of HID Lamp.

LED Grow Lights

LED grow lights are light fixtures that use light-emitting diodes, which are semiconductors that convert electricity into visible light.

Light Deprivation

To deprive the plant of light by blocking out either sunlight or by turning off grow lights.

Light Leak

A tiny leak of light during a dark period that can cause a plant to become stressed and potentially hermaphroditic.

Light Schedule

A schedule of light and dark periods. Typically 18-6, 24-0 and 12-12


Is a measure of the amount of the brightness of a light bulb.


Metal halide is a type HID that uses mercury for its source of light.


Photosynthetic Active Radiation. This is a measurement of light that is within the spectrum that is best for photosynthesis. This measurement is taken between the 400 and 700 wavelength range.


The time of day where a plant receives light.


A style of fluorescent lamp commonly used in vegetation.

Medium and Food

Coco Coir

A growing medium used in hydroponics made from the outer hull of a coconut. It has a great capacity for holding water and its inert capabilities make it work great as a soilless medium.


Electrical Current typically used as an EC Meter. This product is used to measure the amount of salts in a solution. Often converted to PPM to check Parts Per million.


Fertigation is the process of irrigating plants with fertilized water, and is a popular way to help cannabis plants grow strong. When marijuana plants get the nutrients they need from water (as opposed to having to pull nutrients out of the soil), it can be easier for them to get exactly what they need. 


The process of running clean water over the roots before harvest. This has been said that it can take the fertilizer taste out of the dried flower but there are conflicting views on this.


Excrement of sea birds and bats collected and used as a natural fertilizer.

High-frequency Fertigation

What Is High-Frequency Fertigation? High-frequency fertigation is the frequent watering of cannabis plants with fertilizer-infused water. Fertigation is the practice of adding fertilizer to irrigation water used for cannabis plants. This high-frequency fertigation allows cannabis plants to grow fast and efficiently because the water already includes the nutrients and the plants do not have to […]

Living Soil

According to the National Cannabis Industry Association (NCIA), the definition of living soil is the community of microbes working together breaking down organic matter which, in turn, provides valuable nutrition to the plants. Soil microbes are essential for decomposing organic matter and recycling old plant material.


A substrate that is mixed together for the purpose of growing a plant outside of the natural ground or out of the soil.


The three Macronutrients required for all plants Nitrogen, Phosphorus and potassium. Typically seen on a nutrient container in the order or the amount that is in the product a 10 10 10 would be equal but a 10 5 2 would be higher in nitrogen half that amount in Phosphorus and ⅕ the amount in […]

Nutrient Water

Water that is used in the fertigation of plants that has a specific amount of Macronutrients and Micronutrients in it. These nutrient mixed together with a specific amount of water is called a nutrient water.


A naturally occurring substance that WIKI ( Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content, typically formed by the hydration of obsidian. It occurs naturally and has the unusual property of greatly expanding when heated sufficiently) Perlite is used to make soil easier drained and to provide a system to […]


The acidic or basic properties of substance. On a logarithmic scale between 1 and 10 where 1 is more acidic 7 is neutral and 10 is more alkaline. Commonly used in cannabis to determine if the soil or nutreints are within a range that the plants can tolerate for nutrient uptake.


A melted rock that is spun in put into layers which can be used as an inert grow medium.

TDS Meter

A TDS meter measures the amount of “total dissolved solids” in a liquid. While you could measure any kind of solution, most people use TDS meters for water.


WIKI a hydrous phyllosilicate mineral which undergoes significant expansion when heated. Typically used in growing media for aeration and also helps with retaining moisture.

Plant Anatomy


An anther is a small sac that grows at the end of the stamen on male cannabis plants. Anthers create, store, and release pollen, helping plants to reproduce.


A green teardrop shaped leaves that are covered in resin and encapsulate the female reproductive parts.


A translucent layer at the flower’s base. Often confused with a bract.

Cannabis Bud

A cannabis bud is a cluster of trichome-covered flowers produced by the female cannabis plant. Cannabis buds vary in appearance, aroma, color, and density of the flowers and pistils depending on the specific strain. 

Cannabis Flower

The cannabis flower, also known as the cannabis bud when dried, is the smokable part of the cannabis plant, enriched with trichomes. The flower is the most popular way to consume cannabis because it is versatile and provides an immediate effect. The flower, typically ground up, can be smoked in a rolled joint, pipe, bowl or bong, and added to edibles.

Cannabis Leaf

The cannabis leaf is the most iconic symbol of the cannabis plant. It is also one of the most valuable parts of the plant, providing various benefits to growers and smokers alike.

Cannabis Seed

A cannabis seed is a small, round, dark brown to black seed from the female cannabis plant. The seeds are used to grow new cannabis plants. Cannabis seeds contain high THC and CBD levels, making them ideal for medical and recreational use.


The first two embryonic leaves that appear when a seed breaks out and the shell falls of.

Fan Leaf

A fan leaf on a cannabis plant is used for collection of sunlight. These are the large leaves that are not connected to the forming bud.


A series of spots on a cannabis leaf that have different colors from browns to greens and yellows. Often splotchy. Typically caused by stress or nutrient deficiency.


A node is on the stem and connects the offshoots to the other parts of the plant.  Kind of like an intersection.


Beginning in the early stage of flower white hair like structures emerge from the bud as they get older and more mature they tend to convert to an orange color. The pistil has a function though in nature and it is part of the female reproductive system that collects pollen and fertilizes the plants.


A fine powdery substance that holds the male gamete. This substance is very light and can travel on wisp of air or on the body of an insect. Once the pollen is transferred to the female pistil fertilization occurs.

Pollen Sacs

A small sack on a male cananbis plant that holds the pollen until it is released into the environment.


A time during vegetation around 4 weeks in when the plant starts to mature and show signs of whether it is a male or female plant.


Small holes on the underside of the leaf that regulate co2 intake and water loss.

Sugar Leaf

A sugar leaf is a small cannabis plant leaf around which buds form as the plant grows and begins the flowering process. These leaves produce outgrowths known as trichomes, which make the leaf appear as if it’s been coated in sugar crystals, and is what makes the flower sticky. 


The main root of the plant that tends to grow down and hunts for water. All other roots branch out from this main root.

Plant Conditions and Diseases

Cannabis Cold Stress

Cannabis plants are tolerant to certain temperature ranges and will start to show signs of deficiency and lack of health when the temperature goes below the 75F threshold.

Cannabis Heat Stress

Cannabis plants are tolerant to certain temperature ranges and will start to show sign of deficiency and lack of health when the temperature goes above 85F which is the threshold. Higher temps are known to be tolerated when room is induced with elevated levels of CO2.


A term used to describe a plant that is low on water its leaves have a noticeably limp look to them.

Light Stress Cannabis

Caused by either too much light or by not observing the dark schedule during flower. This stress causes the plants to hermie or stunt growth.

Nute Burn

A term used to describe a burn in the leaf caused by an excessive amount of nutrients being uptaken.


A term used to describe a plant container being too wet, this can lead to root rot and nutrient deficiency.

Root Rot

Plant disease that typically has decay of the roots. Can be caused by overwatering or other diseases.


A term used to describe a plant that looks unhealthy due to external conditions that are not favorable to the plant’s growth.



Another term for the flower in the plant. The cola would be several flowers combined together on a branch where the largest colas tend to be near the top of the plant.


A term used to describe a plant has small poorly formed buds usually in the middle to the bottom of the flowering plant.


Leggy describes when a plant has large internodes in between flower sites.


This practice happens around week 2 of flower. This concept removes all fan leaves from the plant so that energy can be directed towards the buds and light reaches further into the canopy.


“OG” means different things to different people in the cannabis world, but it originally referred to a specific strain of cannabis. Today, “OG” is used as an adjective to describe the effects or appearance of a cannabis strain.

Sugar Leaf

A sugar leaf is a small cannabis plant leaf around which buds form as the plant grows and begins the flowering process. These leaves produce outgrowths known as trichomes, which make the leaf appear as if it’s been coated in sugar crystals, and is what makes the flower sticky. 


As opposed to indoor grow, the plant gets its energy directly from the sun and would be grown outside or in a greenhouse.